Shared values lead to collaboration
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Given the alarming pace of climate change, it is increasingly important to understand what factors motivate people to take action—or not—on environmental issues. A recent study in Sustainability Science shows that deeply held values, which align closely with political leanings, can predict whether someone takes action to protect the environment. And it suggests people on opposite ends of the political spectrum can be spurred to take action, as long as messaging taps into those values.
What the researchers say: “The role of cultural values in helping us understand behavior change is currently underrepresented in the conservation science literature,” said the lead author. “This is problematic because cultural values are at the heart of a person’s worldview, so they become a subconscious filter to receive and process all incoming information.
“For example, if you’re telling someone who has a hierarchical worldview that an environmental policy will benefit all people equally, your message might not register,” she explains. “But if you talk about the same policy in terms of what will be achieved and the freedoms won by all people, then all of a sudden this group will hear you and might be more open to further discussions.”
A team of researchers surveyed people who visited Denali National Park, where climate change is an unmistakable reality, to understand their cultural values. For example, survey respondents were asked to agree or disagree with statements like, “Our society would be better off if the distribution of wealth was more equal,” and, “The government interferes far too much in our everyday lives.”
These and multiple other statements helped the research team measure cultural values. It turns out people who visit Denali are more individualist than communitarian (valuing the self above the communal good), and more egalitarian than hierarchical (seeing people as equal versus one group being better than another).
Unlike other social influences, values are fundamental. They are built throughout lifetimes, and across generations. But they are also complex; we are guided by layers of values that relate to our cultures, individual principles, and preferences for particular landscapes.
The survey was designed to capture all of these values, to understand how they built upon each other, and how they predicted pro-environmental behavior once visitors returned home from Denali.
“We asked about small but important behaviors, things like recycling, calling a senator, voting, or just doing things on the ground, like being careful not to track invasive species in your shoelaces. These are the types of things that individuals can feel inspired to do after visiting a national park, and they do make a difference in minimizing human impact on the environment,” she says. “We were able to predict these behaviors by looking at the interactions between different values.”
Because the analysis considered the interactions of multiple value layers, the conclusions are rather complex. But generally, people with more hierarchical values are more likely to prize authority and influence, and are less likely to participate in environmental actions, such as recycling or volunteering for environmental causes. On the flip side, people with more egalitarian values tend to feel a unity with the natural world, leading them to care more about benefiting the environment.
Researchers have studied values and behaviors for decades, but these researchers are the first to successfully test the effects of three different layers of values on behavior change. “It’s so important in the context of a rapidly changing world to get a sense of what motivates pro-environmental behavior so we can find long-term solutions and sustain the places that we care about,” the lead author said. “Getting land managers to think about the values of their stakeholders can help them more effectively reach their constituency and understand their needs.”
So, what? This is a very interesting study and confirms much of recent research into human motivation. What we know now is that:
- Humans are not motivated by facts or reasoning
- We are motivated by commonality, tribe and relational support
- Values are commonalities which partly define culture and enable collaboration
- If you show that you share common beliefs or values people are more willing to do as you ask
- Speaking about values is a relationship exercise
- Values are partly genetic and partly situational to the culture or group we either belong to or aspire to belong to, no matter how deeply they are held.
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