Cooperation among strangers has increased since the 1950s

August 7, 2022

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Cooperation among strangers has increased since the 1950s

Despite common concerns that the social fabric is fraying, cooperation among strangers has gradually increased in the U.S. since the 1950s, according to research published by the American Psychological Association (of which Alicia and I are members).

What the researchers say: “We were surprised by our findings that Americans became more cooperative over the last six decades because many people believe U.S. society is becoming less socially connected, less trusting and less committed to the common good,” said the lead researcher. “Greater cooperation within and between societies may help us tackle global challenges, such as responses to pandemics, climate change and immigrant crises.”

The researchers analyzed 511 studies conducted in the United States between 1956 and 2017 with a total of more than 63,000 participants. Those studies included lab experiments measuring cooperation among strangers. The research was published in Psychological Bulletin.

The study found a small, gradual increase in cooperation across the 61-year period, which the researchers said may be linked to notable shifts in U.S. society. It was associated with increases in urbanization, societal wealth, income inequality and the number of people living alone. The study cannot prove those factors caused an increase in cooperation, only that there is a correlation.

Increased cooperation has been linked with market competitiveness and economic growth in prior research. As more people live in cities and on their own, they may be forced to cooperate with strangers, the researchers said.

“It’s possible that people gradually learn to broaden their cooperation with friends and acquaintances to strangers, which is called for in more urban, anonymous societies. U.S. society may have become more individualistic, but people have not.”

However, the researchers noted that prior studies have not found that levels of cooperation vary by gender or ethnicity in the U.S. However, the study did not measure some other societal factors, such as levels of trust about strangers. Prior research has found a general decline in trust over several decades in the U.S.

“One intriguing implication of these findings is that while Americans’ cooperation has increased over time, their beliefs about others’ willingness to cooperate has actually declined,” the journal article stated.

So, what? This is an absolutely fascinating study which needs further research. It certainly goes against a bundle of other findings.

One interesting point that the researchers make is that cooperation is growing in urban areas but not rural ones. The cult of the rugged self-sufficient individual is alive and well in many parts of the country.

Dr Bob Murray

Bob Murray, MBA, PhD (Clinical Psychology), is an internationally recognised expert in strategy, leadership, influencing, human motivation and behavioural change.

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