Why teachers give girls higher marks than boys
Listen to this article
Girls are routinely being given more generous grades than boys with the same academic competences, a new study of tens of thousands of pupils and their teachers concludes.
This bias against boys could mean the difference between a pass and a fail in subjects such as maths. It could also have wider consequences in areas such as college admission, job choice and earnings, warn the researchers.
Their study, published in British Journal of Sociology of Education, is the first to demonstrate that the problem is systemic – it is present across a variety of educational environments and irrespective of teachers’ characteristics.
Gender-related gaps in educational achievement are common worldwide. However, the nature of the gap differs with different ways of measuring achievement. When the results of standardized tests, which have a standard scoring system, are used, girls typically outperform boys in humanities, languages and reading skills, while boys do better in maths.
In contrast, when grades are awarded by teachers, females do better than males in all subjects.
To find out how teachers’ evaluations tend to favor females, the researchers began by comparing the scores of almost 40,000 students received in standardized tests of language and maths with the grades they achieved in their classroom exams.
The 38,957 students were in the 10th grade and so around 15-16 years old. The standardized tests were set nationally and marked anonymously, while the classroom exams were set in the classroom and marked non-anonymously by their teachers. In line with previous studies, the girls performed better than the boys in the standardized tests of language, while the boys were ahead at maths.
The teachers however, put the girls in front in both subjects. The girls’ average grade in language was 6.6 (out of 10), with compares with 6.2 for the boys. In maths, the average grade for the girls was 6.3, while the boys averaged 5.9, which is below the pass mark of 6.
The analysis also showed that when a boy and a girl were similarly competent at a subject, the girl would typically receive a higher grade.
The researchers then looked at whether factors, such as the type of school and the size and gender make-up of classes, were driving the gender grade gap. They also investigated whether characteristics of teachers themselves, such as how senior or experienced they were and whether they were male or female, helped explain girls’ more generous grades.
Only two factors were found to have an effect – and only in maths. The gender gap in maths grades was greater when classes were bigger. Girls were also graded as being further ahead than boys in technical and academic schools than they were in vocational schools.
None of the other factors had any significant effect in reducing the gender grading gap.
Taken overall, the results show for the first time that higher grading of girls is systemic – rather than stemming from one particular failing, it is embedded in the whole school system.
What the researchers say: “It’s possible that, in reading, teachers unconsciously reward students exhibiting traditionally female behavior, such as quietness and neatness, which make teaching easier for the teachers,” the authors speculated. “Another theory is that inflated grades in mathematics are a way of trying to encourage girls, who are often seen as weaker in this subject.”
They conclude that bias against boys in schools is considerable and could have long-term consequences.
“There is a strong correlation between having higher grades and desirable educational outcomes, such as gaining admission to good colleges or having a lower probability of dropping out of school,” says the lead researcher. “Consequently, higher grades are also correlated with other outcomes, such as having higher earnings, a better job or even higher life satisfaction.”
So, what? In our research for our book “Raising an Optimistic Child,” Alicia and I found that boys face considerable hurdles in education. As the authors of this study point out, teachers generally want boys to behave like girls do in class.
But this is totally against how young human males are programmed to behave and learn. They learn more through experience and action—as you would expect proto-hunters to do. They’re not designed to sit still and listen and they’re not designed to be so quiescent as girls or deferential to their instructors. They are far more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD and unnecessarily prescribed drugs such as Ritalin that can do them long-term harm.
Join the discussion
More from this issue of TR
New group flow theory shows: Behavior, mental state and personal skills must fit together in a team
Group flow is not only apparent in team sports. We also see it in business meetings, between doctors carrying out surgery, or with musicians in an orchestra.
Breaking up is hard to do - but many men find healthy ways to cope
The popular stereotype that men don’t want support during a breakup, separation or divorce is simply not true.
You might be interested inBack to Today's Research
Collaborate electronically, but only intermittently.
The march toward always-on technology may hinder groups’ ability to solve complex problems, according to a just-published study
Weakening link between workplace sexual harassment and women's negative self-views
Increased feelings of support and empowerment have been reported in response to the #MeToo movement.
Late baby boomers show concerning decline in cognitive functioning
In a reversal of trends, American baby boomers scored lower on a test of cognitive functioning than did members of previous generations. The decline was seen in all groups: men and women, across all races and ethnicities and across all education, income and wealth levels.
Join our tribe
Subscribe to Dr. Bob Murray’s Today’s Research, a free weekly roundup of the latest research in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Explore leadership, strategy, culture, business and social trends, and executive health.